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  •  There are four octet in IPV4. Each octet has 8 bits. So, there are 32 bits in IPV4. IPV4 is based on binary (0, 1) and decimal (0 to 9).

    
    

    1st Octet                  2nd Octet               3rdOctet             4th Octet 8bits 8bits              8 bits              8 bits 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20       27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20       27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20         27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20   255.255.255.255               255.255.255.255             255.255.255.255            255.255.255.255

    How to become 255.255.255.255 ? As each octet has 8 bit and is based on binary.... 27 = 128,  26 = 64,  25 = 32, 24 = 16,  23 = 8,  22 = 4, 21 = 2,  20 = 1 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255

    Let's try to change from the Decimal to the Binary....   Decmial                   =                  Binary 1st Octet     2nd Octet    3rd Octet   4th Octet      1stOctet      2nd Octet    3rd Octet    4th Octet 192       .    168      .   1      .  0          =        11000000  . 10101000  . 00000001 .  00000000 223       .    200      .   100   .  25        =        11011111  .  11001000  . 01100100 . 00011001 172       .    16       .   31     .  87         =        10101100  .  00010000  . 00011111 . 01010111

    Let's explore 192.168.1.0/24.... Network Address = 192.168.1.0 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255

    Let's explore 192.168.1.0/25.... 1nd Network Address = 192.168.1.0 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.128 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.126 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.127 2nd Network Address = 192.168.1.128 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.128 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255

    Let's explore 192.168.1.0/26... 1st Network Address = 192.168.1.0 Subnet Mask = 192.168.1.192 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.62 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.63 2nd Network Address = 192.168.1.64 Subnet Mask = 192.168.1.192 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.65 to 192.168.1.126 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.127 3rd Network Address = 192.168.1.128 Subnet Mask = 192.168.1.192 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.190 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.191 4th Network Address = 192.168.1.192 Subnet Mask = 192.168.1.192 Usable IP Addresses = 192.168.1.193 to 192.168.1.254 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255 (Note: The Subnet Mask is reverse proportional to host range. The larger the subnet mask, the smaller the host range.)

    The following table is formula for Ipv4 addresses (Class C). I've made it when I was in Singapore Polytechnic. Binary Decimal Prefix Subnet Mask Count of Networks Usable Ip Range - - /24 255.255.255.0 1 254 27 128 /25 255.255.255.128 2 126 26 64 /26 255.255.255.192 4 62 25 32 /27 255.255.255.224 8 30 24 16 /28 255.255.255.240 16 14 23 8 /29 255.255.255.248 32 6 22 4 30 255.255.255.252 64 2